THE ILOCANO AMERICAN ASSOCIATION, INC.

title

 

Ilocano people

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Ilocanos

The Ilocano or Ilokano people are the third largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group. Aside from being referred to as Ilocanos, from "i"-from, and "looc"-bay, they also refer to themselves as Samtoy, from the Ilocano phrase "sao mi ditoy", meaning 'our language here.' The word "Ilocano" came from the word "Iloco" or "Yloco."

Contents  [hide] 

            1 Origin and distribution

            2 Demographics

            3 History

                        3.1 Spanish Era to the Philippine Republic

                        3.2 Present

                        3.3 Food

                        3.4 Literature

            4 Notable Ilocanos

                        4.1 Philippine nationals of Ilocano ancestry

                        4.2 Foreign nationals of Ilocano ancestry

            5 See also

            6 Notes and sources

            7 External links

Origin and distribution [edit]

The Ilocano people are indigenous to coastal areas of northern Luzon in the Philippines.[1] Since the Ilocos province is the closest province to China, a lot of Ilocanos are of mixed descent.Today, the Ilocanos are the dominant ethnic group in northern Luzon, and their language (Ilocano) has become the lingua franca of the region, as Ilocano traders provide highland peoples with their primary link to the commerce of the outside world.[1] Ilocandia is the term given to the traditional homeland of the Ilocano people; present-day Ilocandia roughly encompasses regions 1 through 3 of the Philippines (the Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, and parts of Central Luzon), as well as the Cordillera Administrative Region.

Many Ilocanos have left their homeland to settle elsewhere. The Ilocanos are the majority in the provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra, La Union, Apayao, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, and Quirino. They form 10-49% of the populations of the province of Aurora, Zambales, Kalinga, Nueva Ecija, Ifugao, Benguet, Pangasinan, and Tarlac. Less than 10% in the Batanes, and Mountain Province. Further government-sponsored migrations have led to the resettlement of Ilocanos to Mindanao, particularly to the provinces of South Cotabato, North Cotabato, and Sultan Kudarat. Other important Ilocano communities exist in Metro Manila and the world over.

Demographics [edit]

Ilocanos number about 9,136,000.[citation needed] ].[citation needed] A few Ilocanos living in the Cordilleras have some Cordillerano blood. Ilocanos speak the Ilokano language (also called Iloko), which is part of the Northern Philippine subgroup of the Austronesian family of languages. They also speak Cebuano (in Mindanao), Tagalog, and English as second languages. Most Ilocanos are Roman Catholics, while a significant number[quantify] belong to the Aglipayan Church, which originated in Ilocos Norte.[1][2] Many Filipino Americans are of Ilocano descent. They make up 85% of the Filipino-American population in Hawaii.

History [edit]

The Austronesian ancestors of the present-day Ilocanos came to the Philippines through bilogs, or outrigger boats during the Iron Age.

Spanish Era to the Philippine Republic [edit]

In 1572, Juan de Salcedo arrived at the town of Bauang.

Present [edit]

The mounting population pressure due to the substantial population density during the mid-19th century caused the migration of the Ilocanos out of their historic homeland. By 1903, more than 290,000 Ilocanos migrated to Central Luzon, Cagayan Valley, and Metro Manila. More than 180,000 moved to Pangasinan, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija. Almost 50,000 moved to Cagayan Valley; half of them resided in Isabela. Around 47,000 lived in Zambales.

The Ilocano Diaspora continued in 1906 when Ilocanos started to migrate to Hawaii and California. Ilocanos composed the largest number of expatriates in the United States, though most are bilingual with Tagalog. There is a significant Ilocano community in Hawaii, in which they make up more than 85% of the Filipino population there.[3]

Later migrations brought Ilocanos to the Cordilleras, Aurora, Mindoro, Palawan, and Mindanao provinces of Sultan Kudarat, North Cotabato, and South Cotabato.

Food [edit]

Pinakbet, one of the staples of the Ilocano diet.

Ilocanos boast of a somewhat healthy diet heavy in boiled or steamed vegetables and freshwater fish, but are particularly fond of dishes flavored with [1]bagoong, fermented fish that is often used instead of salt. Ilocanos often season boiled vegetables with bagoong monamon (fermented anchovy paste) to produce pinakbet. Local specialties include the "abuos," soft white larvae of ants, and "jumping salad" or tiny, live shrimp with kalamansi juice.

Literature [edit]

One of the most well-known Ilocano literary works written in Iloco is the Biag ni Lam-ang (The Life of Lam-Ang), an epic poem about the fantastic life and escapades of an Ilocano hero named Lam-ang.

The ilocano writer Elizabeth Medina is probably the most remarkable living ilocano writer in Spanish language.

Notable Ilocanos [edit]

Philippine nationals of Ilocano ancestry [edit]

•                Jing Abalos from Camiling, Tarlac, is an actor in the Philippines from the 1960s.

•                Gregorio Aglipay, founder of the Aglipayan Church.

•                Freddie Aguilar, composer and singer from Isabela Province.

•                Pedro Almazan, leader from Laoag; proclaimed and crowned King of Ilocos; led the First Ilocos Revolt in January 1661.

•                Magnolia Antonino (born December 14, 1915) was a Senator of the Philippines. She was married to Gaudencio Antonino, also a Senator.

•                Marlou Aquino (aka "The Skyscraper", born September 21, 1972 in Santa Barbara, Pangasinan) is a Filipino professional basketball player in the Philippine Basketball Association for the Sta. Lucia Realtors.

•                Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, 14th Filipino president. Her maternal grandfather, Juan Macaraeg, was from Bacarra, Ilocos Norte.[4]

•                Antonino Barroga, founder and first mayor of Luna, Apayao.[5]

•                Janet Belarmino from Nueva Vizcaya, one of the trio of first Filipino women to scale Mount Everest.[6]

•                César Bengzon from Camiling, Tarlac, former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, appointed by President Osmenaand.

•                Rodolfo "Pong" Gaspar Biazon (born April 14, 1935) is a politician in the Philippines. He is currently a Senator. He was elected Senator in the 1992 election for a term of 3 years. He was elected to his first six-year term in the 1998 election, and was re-elected in the 2004 election. Biazon was born in Batac City, Ilocos Norte.

•                Jejomar Binay, Vice President of the Republic of the Philippines. His mother is from Cabagan, Isabela.

•                Gregorio C. Brillantes from Camiling, Tarlac, a multi-award-winning fiction writer and magazine editor, is one of the Philippines' greatest writers in English.

•                Jose Burgos, Filipino priest and martyr during Spanish times.

•                Sonny Cabatu (born on October 10, 1960 in Cabugao, Ilocos Sur), is a retired Filipino professional basketball player in the Philippine Basketball Association and was the very draft pick of the league in 1985. He is also the father of current Barangay Ginebra Kings player Junjun Cabatu.

•                Marky Cielo (1988–2008), from Mountain Province, was a Filipino actor and dancer. In 2006 he won the reality talent competition StarStruck. During his two-year career, he starred in Fantastikids (2006), Asian Treasures (2007), Boys Nxt Door (2007), Zaido: Pulis Pangkalawakan (2007–2008), Sine Novela: Kaputol ng Isang Awit (2008), and LaLola (2008). He also voiced the character Ichigo Kurosaki in the anime Bleach (2007).

•                Onofre Corpuz, from Camiling, Tarlac, writer and former secretary of the Department of Education; 13th president of the University of the Philippines; president of the Development Academy of the Philippines.

•                Jake Cuenca, young Filipino actor who starred in the ABS-CBN television series Rubi, Tayong Dalawa and Palos. His father is a Spanish-American from San Francisco, California and his mother is an Ilocana from Batac City, Ilocos Norte.

•                Anne Curtis Filipina actress; her mother is from Pangasinan.

•                Adolfo Dacanay, chair of the Theology Department at the Ateneo de Manila University; member of the Society of Jesus; officer of the Canon Law Society of the Philippines.

•                Gloria Diaz, Miss Universe 1969 from Aringay, La Union.

•                Juan Ponce Enrile (born February 14, 1924), a political figure in the Philippines. Originally a protégé of Ferdinand Marcos, he later became one of the leaders (along with Fidel V. Ramos) in the 1986 People Power Revolution that drove Ferdinand Marcos from power. Enrile has been the President of the Senate of the Philippines since November 2008. He was born in Gonzaga, Cagayan.

•                Josefa Llanes Escoda, women's rights activist, founder of the Girl Scouts of the Philippines.

•                Erlinda Fadera-Basilio, ambassador and permanent representative of the Philippines to the United Nations and other international organizations in Geneva, Switzerland; the first woman Vice President of the UN Human Rights Council; founding member of the English Speaking Union (ESU), Philippines Chapter. She is from Bacnotan, La Union.

•                Cristinelli "Cristy" Fermin (born 1958, Nueva Ecija) is a controversial Filipino talk show host and showbiz reporter.

•                Leona Florentino, famous woman poet.

•                Vivian Foz, actress from Rosales, Pangasinan.[7]

•                Carlos P. Garcia, 8th President of the Philippines (1957–1961). Born in Bohol but parents were Ilocanos from Bangued, Abra.

•                Ramon Naval Guico is the President of the League of Municipalities of the Philippines (LMP) and the current mayor of the town of Binalonan in Pangasinan. He recently launched the Ginhawa Mo, Gets (Gamot, Edukasyon, Trabaho, Serbisyo) Ko Agad Campaign which aims to strengthen the local government and provide faster and improved services to the people. He is from Binalonan.

•                Danilo Ildefonso (born December 9, 1976 in Urdaneta City, Pangasinan) is a Filipino professional basketball player for the San Miguel Beermen in the Philippine Basketball Association. Nicknamed Danny I and The Demolition Man, Ildefonso is a two-time PBA Most Valuable Player (2000 and 2001). He played amateur basketball for the National University Bulldogs in the UAAP and for AGFA in the Philippine Basketball League and was a member of the Philippine national basketball team.

•                Robert "Bobby" Jaworski, famous PBA player and a former Philippine senator.

•                Francisco Sionil José, prominent English-language novelist.

•                Augusto Litonjua, founder and first Filipino president of Philippine Association for the Study of Overweight and Obesity (PASOO, 1994); he is known as the father of Philippine endocrinology.

•                General Antonio Luna, general of Emilio Aguinaldo's era.

•                Juan Luna, famous Filipino painter, older brother of Antonio.

•                JB Magsaysay, Pinoy Big Brother (season 1) housemate and grandson of former President Ramon Magsaysay.

•                Ramon F. Magsaysay, former Philippine President, pure Ilocano from Castillejos, Zambales.

•                Ferdinand Marcos, 10th President of the Philippines (1965–1986).

•                Ferdinand Marcos, Jr., also known as BongBong Marcos, is the only son of former president Ferdinand Marcos. He is currently the representative and former governor of Ilocos Norte.

•                Maria Imelda Josefa Romualdez Marcos, also known as Imee Marcos, daughter of former president Ferdinand Marcos, is a former representative of the 2nd District of Ilocos Norte in the Philippine House of Representatives (1998 to 2007). She belongs to the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan political party.

•                Mariano Marcos, father of Ferdinand Marcos, was a lawyer and a politician.

•                Liza Maza (born 8 September 1957) is a Filipino activist and development worker. She represents the Gabriela Women's Party in the 13th Congress of the Philippines.

•                Martha Vanessa Antonio del Moral, better known by her screen name Vaness del Moral (born on May 23, 1988 in Baguio City, Benguet, Philippines), is a Filipina actress and a talent at one of the top management groups in the Philippines, the GMA Artist Center.

•                Alma Moreno (born May 25, 1959 in Cervantes, Ilocos Sur) is a Filipina actress and politician.

•                Bienvenido Nebres, the longest-serving university president of Ateneo de Manila University; member of the board of trustees of Georgetown University, Regis University, the Asian Institute of Management (where he sits as Vice-Chair), and other colleges and universities in the Philippines.

•                Óscar Orbos (from Bani, Pangasinan), popularly known as Ka Oca, is a Philippine TV personality and host of the popular debate show Debate with Mare at Pare. Órbos is also a former cabinet secretary, provincial governor, and vice presidential candidate.

•                Camilo Osías (March 23, 1889 Balaoan, La Union - May 20, 1976 Manila) was a Filipino politician, twice for a short time President of the Senate of the Philippines.

•                Ambrosio Bibby Padilla from Lingayen, Pangasinan, was a basketball player and elected member of the Senate of the Philippines; he was one of the most important figures in the development of Asian basketball.

•                Robin Padilla, action star from the Northern Province, Baguio.

•                Quintín Paredes (September 9, 1884 - January 30, 1973), a Filipino lawyer, politician, and statesman. He was born in Bangued, Abra.

•                Maribeth Pascua, international singer and mass communications lecturer in Indonesia.[8]

•                Barbara Perez, actress (from Urdaneta City, Pangasinan)

•                Pilar Pilapil (from Camiling, Tarlac) was selected to represent the Philippines in the Miss Universe 1967 pageant and went on to become a well-known actress.

•                Fernando Poe, Jr. (August 20, 1939 – December 14, 2004), born as Ronald Allan Kelley Poe and colloquially known as FPJ and Da King, was a Filipino actor and film director. He was honored in 2006 as Philippine National Artist. He ran an unsuccessful bid for President of the Philippines in the 2004 presidential elections against the incumbent, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. His mother was a Kapampangan from Candaba; his father, Fernando Poe, Sr., was an Ilocano actor from Pangasinan.

•                Elpidio Quirino, 6th President of the Philippines (1948–1953) and native of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur.

•                Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928), popularly known as FVR, was the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. Prior to his election as president, Ramos served in the Cabinet of President Corazon Aquino, first as chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and, later on, as Secretary of National Defense from 1986 to 1991.

•                Coney Reyes (born May 27, 1954) is a film/television actress, television host and producer.

•                Nicanor Reyes, Sr., founder and first president of the Far Eastern University in Manila. He envisioned a school that would promote the teaching of accounting to Filipinos, a profession formerly available only to foreigners. His hometown was Paniqui, Tarlac.

•                Artemio Ricarte (October 20, 1866 — July 31, 1945) was a Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War. He is considered by the Armed Forces of the Philippines as the "Father of the Philippine Army". Ricarte is also notable for never having taken an oath of allegiance to the United States government, which occupied the Philippines from 1898 to 1946. Ricarte was born in Batac City, Ilocos Norte.

•                Lolita Rodriguez, actress (from Urdaneta City, Pangasinan)

•                Ruby Rodriguez from San Marcelino, Zambales is a Filipina actress and a co-host of the television variety show Eat Bulaga! in the Philippines.

•                Gloria Romero actress whose father is an Ilocano from Pangasinan and mother is Caucasian.

•                Alberto Romulo, from Camiling, Tarlac, is the Philippines' Secretary for Foreign Affairs. He is the younger brother of Carlos P. Romulo.

•                Carlos P. Romulo, from Camiling, Tarlac; famous statesman and former President of the United Nations General Assembly.

•                Carmen Rosales, actress Pangasinan

•                Jericho Rosales, actor born in Quezon City whose Ilocano roots were traced back to Bucay, Abra.

•                Maja Salvador, actress from Abulug, Cagayan

•                Paulino Santos from Camiling, Tarlac, a former chief of staff of the Philippine Army during the time of Philippine President Manuel Luis Quezon; founder of Penal Colonies and a Philippine Constabulary Second Lieutenant.

•                Leticia Ramos Shahani has served as Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs (1981–1986) and as Secretary General for the Third United Nations Conference on Women in Nairobi (1985). She currently serves as the Co-Chair of the Global Peace Initiative of Women. She was born in Lingayen, Pangasinan.

•                Jacqueline Aquino Siapno (from Dagupan City, Pangasinan), the interim first lady of East Timor, has taught at universities in London, Australia, East Timor, Indonesia and California. She has served as a political advisor and as a consultant to various grassroots organizations around the world. She is also a published author.[9]

•                Diego Silang, leader and revolutionist.

•                Gabriela Silang, wife of Diego, revolutionist.

•                Luis "Chavit" Singson (born June 21, 1941), better known as Chavit Singson, is a Filipino politician. He was a former Governor of the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines since 1998. He is the owner of the Partas Bus Company. He is from Vigan, Ilocos Sur.

•                Benito Soliven, studied law at the University of the Philippines, graduated summa cum laude, placed third in the 1921 Bar Examinations, the first lawyer of Santo Domingo, Ilocos Sur, an intellectual, a linguist, a successful political leader, an Outstanding Congressman, a three-termer in the House of Representatives acclaimed as "Valedictorian" in congress having the greatest number of bills most of which were passed/approved by his Colleagues, a hero of World War II, and most of all a very saintly and charitable man, ready to help the needy and his clients free of charge to those who didn't have the money. He is the father of the late Maximo Villaflor Soliven, a prominent Filipino journalist and newspaper publisher and Realtor Victorio V. Soliven. A school and a town are also named after him, the Benito Soliven Academy, located in Santo Domingo, Ilocos Sur and Benito Soliven in the province of Isabela.

•                Máximo Villaflor Solivén (September 4, 1929 – November 24, 2006) was a prominent Filipino journalist and newspaper publisher. In a career that spanned six decades, he attained his greatest peak and influence with the Philippine Star, which he co-founded in 1986, and where he served as publisher until his death. His daily column published in the Star, titled "By The Way", was one of the most widely read newspaper columns in the Philippines.

•                Sandra Ann R. Talag, popularly known as Sandy Talag, is a Filipina child actress. She rose to fame through the television talent search StarStruck Kids. She was born in Baguio City, Benguet.

•                Gilbert Teodoro (born June 14, 1964) is a former Secretary of National Defense of the Philippines, having assumed the post in August 2007 and resigning November 15, 2009. From 1998 to 2007 he was a member of the House of Representatives, representing the First District of Tarlac province. In March 2009 he announced his intention to run for President of the Philippines in the May 2010 elections. He was also known for his contributions to the people after Typhoon Ondoy hit the Philippines. During that time, he was still the Secretary of the Department of National Defense.

•                Edith L Tiempo - 1999 National Artist in Literature from Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya

•                Jose de Venecia, Jr. (born December 26, 1936), also known as JDV or Joe De V, is a former Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines, serving from 1992 to 1998 and from 2001 to 2008. He was the former president of the Philippines' dominant party, Lakas-CMD. He ran for president in the 1998 election but lost to Vice President Joseph Estrada. Since 1987, de Venecia has been elected to six terms as a Representative of the 4th District of Pangasinan. On February 5, 2008, 174 representatives (a considerable majority of members of the House) voted to remove de Venecia as Speaker. He is the first Filipino who has held the Speakership five times in separate terms.

•                Fabian Ver, former General and Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

•                Nova Villa (from La Union) is a veteran comedienne.

•                Phil Villas (born January 30, 1993), is an ilocano rap artist, and founder of the record label Homemade music ent. He is from Roxas, Isabela

•                Ignacio B. Villamor, the first Filipino to serve as President of the University of the Philippines (from Abra).

•                Teófilo Yldefonso, "the Ilocano Shark" (February 9, 1903 – July 19, 1943), was a Filipino swimmer who specialized in the breaststroke. He was the first Filipino to win an Olympic medal, and the only Filipino to win multiple medals. He was born in Piddig, Ilocos Norte.

•                Jessica Soho (born March 27, 1964) is Filipino broadcast journalist, documentarian and news director who received a George Foster Peabody Award[1] and was the first Filipino to win the British Fleet Journalism Award in 1998.[2] She is from San Juan, La Union

Foreign nationals of Ilocano ancestry [edit]

•                Benny Agbayani, professional baseball player.

•                Rolando B. Almazan, President and CEO of one of the largest chemical plants in Canada; included in the international roster of Who's Who.

•                Anjelo Baligad, aka Lil Demon, bboy/breakdancer featured on The Ellen DeGeneres Show on April 21, 2009.[10]

•                Charlene Barroga, cancer research scientist.[11]

•                Thelma Buchholdt, J.D., elected member, Alaska State House of Representatives (1974–1982).

•                Carlos Bulosan, writer from Binalonan, Pangasinan.

•                David Bunevacz, athlete.

•                Sheryl Bautista Burke, two-time Dancing With The Stars (DWTS) champion.  Her mother Sherrie Bautista, who hails from San Jose, Nueva Ecija, is a pure Ilocana.

•                Mikey Bustos, YouTube star and Canadian Idol finalist.[12]

•                Ben Cayetano, 5th Governor of Hawaii (1994–2002).

•                Philip Vera Cruz, labor union leader.

•                Rt. Honourable Joseph Raymundo-Adolfo Domingo, British Labour Party politician.

•                Erlinda Dominguez, C.E.O. of Dominguez Law Offices Honolulu, Hawaii.

•                Emil Guillermo, journalist and 2000 American Book Award winner.

•                Danny Inosanto, martial artist, Bruce Lee's assistant.

•                Ana "The Hurricane" Julaton (from Pozorrubio, Pangasinan) is a boxer. She won the San Francisco Golden Gloves, the California State Championships, was a Diamond Belt champion, and closed out her amateur career by winning the silver medal in the United States Amateur Championships. As a professional boxer, Julation is close to the top in winning world titles with the fewest professional bouts. As of 2010, she is a world-title holder of the International Boxing Association and the World Boxing Organization.[13][14]

•                Angelita Albano Castro Kelly, first Fil-Am to become a space mission engineer at the National Administration of Space and Aeronautics.[15][16][17][18][19]

•                Christopher Derige Malano, 19th Secretary General of Pax Romana (organization)

•                Ramiele Malubay, American Idol Season 7 Top 12 contestant.

•                Rhoda Montemayor, Europe actress and model.[20]

•                George Quibuyen, MC of Blue Scholars

•                Gloria Romero is a multi-award-winning Filipino actress whose career spans 60 years. She was ranked 6th among the 15 Best Philippine Actresses of All Time by S Magazine.

•                Lt. Gen. Edward Soriano, first Fil-Am General of the US Army (ret).

•                Maj. Gen. Antonio Taguba, second Fil-Am General of the US Army.

•                Gregory Galgana Villar III, NASA engineer for the Mars Curiosity Rover mission

•                Donita Rose Villarama is an actress, TV host and former MTV Asia VJ. In 2001 she was selected by FHM as Sexiest Woman in the Philippines.

•                Brian Viloria, light flyweight boxing champion.

•                Engr. Reynante Tolentino, OFW Engineer - "Awardee of Best Filipino Employee" .

Notes and sources [edit]

1.^ a b c "Ilocanos." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. The Gale Group, Inc. 1999. Retrieved December 10, 2009.

2.^ "UCLA Language Materials Project". Retrieved 2012-09-28.

3.^ Uhm Center For Philippine Studies

4.^ "Good To Know"

5.^ Belarde, Sonia; Ronald Ocampo (2010-02-05). "Municipal Background of Luna, The Show Window of Apayao". d' lunanians: The Official Site of the Municipality of Luna Apayao. Retrieved 2010-09-27.

6.^ http://www.filipinasoul.com/2007/05/filipinas-on-mt-everest/

7.^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1085391/

8.^ http://www.asianewsnet.net/news.php?sec=1&id=2950

9.^ http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/20090415-199381/E-Timor-first-lady-takes-bus-to-Pangasinan

10.^ "Featuring 7-Year-Old Break Dancer Anjelo Lil' Demon Baligad! - The Ellen DeGeneres Show"

11.^ http://www.biomedexperts.com/Profile.bme/84906/Charlene_F_Barroga

12.^ http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/244858/pinoyabroad/youtube-sensation-mikey-bustos-and-how-to-be-pilipino

13.^ Lauren Smiley. "The Eyes of the Hurricane". SF Weekly. March 10, 2010.

14.^ "Ana Julaton: Her Side of the Ring". Mightygloves.com. November 28, 2009.

15.^ "Famous Ilocanos and Ilocanas"

16.^ Official Bacarra Site Trivia

17.^ THE A-TRAIN: NASA'S EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM (EOS) SATELLITES AND OTHER EARTH OBSERVATION SATELLITES, dlr.de

18.^ Aura Science Team Meeting : Boulder, Colorado : September 11 -15, 2006, avdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

19.^ Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft : Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring, National Academies Press, p. 25 (online page 36)

20.^ "Munting Nayon News Magazine"